Monday, September 30, 2019
Drug abuse and addiction are a major burden to society. Many people do not understand why individuals become addicted to drugs or how drugs change the brain to foster compulsive drug abuse. They mistakenly view drug abuse and addiction as strictly a social problem and may characterize those who take drugs as morally weak. One very common belief is that drug abusers should be able to just stop taking drugs if they are only willing to change their behavior. What people often underestimate is the complexity of drug addiction Ã¢â¬â that it is a disease that impacts the brain and because of that, stopping drug abuse is not simply a matter of willpower. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume productive lives. So what is drug abuse and why do we became addicted to certain drugs? Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals. Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse dependency consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors. Addictions can include, but are not limited to, drug abuse, exercise abuse, sexual activity and gambling. Classic hallmarks of addiction include: impaired control over substances/behavior, preoccupation with substance/behavior, continued use despite consequences, and denial. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs). Physiological dependence occurs when the body has to adjust to the substance by incorporating the substance into its Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ functioning. This state creates the conditions of tolerance and withdrawal. Drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance to alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Traditional definitions of addiction, with their criteria of physical dependence and withdrawal (and often an underlying tenor of depravity and sin) have been modified with increased understanding; with the introduction of new drugs, such as cocaine, that are psychologically or neuropsychologically addicting; and with the realization that its stereotypical application to opiate-drug users was invalid because many of them remain occasional users with no physical dependence. Addiction is more often now defined by the continuing, compulsive nature of the drug use despite physical and/or psychological harm to user and society and includes both licit and illicit drugs, and the term Ã¢â¬Å"substance abuseÃ¢â¬ is now frequently used because of the broad range of substances (including alcohol and inhalants) that can fit the addictive profile. There are many different types of drugs you should be aware of. Some are prescribed, others are known as club drugs, illicit or illegal substances, and some are called designers drugs. They include: Antidepressants, Barbiturates, Cannabis, Depressants, Hallucinogens, Inhalants, Narcotics, Steroids, Stimulants and Tobacco.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Training Needs Assessment for Chicago Transit Authority By Tammi Adams Table of Contents Executive Summary___________________________________________________ 3 Background of CTA___________________________________________________ 4 Needs Assessment Design, Implementation and Analysis_____________________5 Recommended Training Strategy and Design______________________________6 Cost/Benefit Analysis__________________________________________________ 8 Training Evaluation Plan_______________________________________________9 References___________________________________________________________10Executive Summary We here at CTA are committed to providing quality and safe service to our customers which is why we are committed in making sure that all qualified individuals are trained to the highest standard. This training needs assessment is focused on the bus operators of the CTA since they are the public face of the agency. Before any training can begin individuals have to go through series of test to see if a individual is qualified. Once a person is qualified and hired they will start a 4 week training class with qualified CTA instructors.This 4 week training class will consist of classroom work and on- the- road techniques. Once the training has ended the trainee will take a 100 question exam to see how much they have learned though out the training course. In order to the successfully pass the training course the trainee will have to pass at least 80% of the exam. If a trainee has failed to pass the exam they will be given a second chance, but if they fail again, potential employment at CTA will be terminated. After a trainee has successfully passed the training course they will be known as a professional bus operator and will start working on their own.Once the bus operator starts working an instructor will come out at random to observe them to see if all rules and procedures are being followed. CTA has decided that every 2 years all bus operators will have to ta ke a recertification class to refresh their skills and learn new ones. Background of CTA The CTA is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest public transportation system which covers the City of Chicago and 40 of its surrounding suburbs. The CTA is provided by their modes which are the bus and rail service while the bus service is the public face of the agency. On a average CTA provides over 1. 4 million rides which accounts for 80% of all taken in the six county Chicago metropolitan region. CTA operates 24 hours each day on an average weekday. It has approximately 1,800 buses which operates 140 routes. Buses provide about one million passenger trips a day and serve more than 12,000 posted bus stops. The Chicago Transit Authority's 1,190 train cars operates eight routes, its trains provide about 650,000 customer trips each day and serve 144 stations in Chicago. CTAÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to deliver quality, affordable transit services that link, commuters, jobs, and communities.CTA has many values but the most important one is providing transit service with the highest standards of quality and safety for our customers. Another value is that they focus on getting the job done and will derive personal satisfaction from the service they provide. With this being said while providing quality service it is important that CTA has dedicated and skillfully trained employees. It is important for the employees to be aware of all procedures so they can provide service with high standards. The specific position at CTA I will be discussing is the position of Bus Operators.At CTA, bus operators are the face of the agency which is why it is important for them to ensure CTAÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of providing quality and safe service to its customers. Bus operators are the ones who operate bus transportation over a route adhering to a schedule in a safe efficient and polite manner to allow passengers to board travel and alight at scheduled stops. Needs Assessment Design, Implementation and Anal ysis At CTA safety is its number 1 priority, with this being said training definitely supports the company strategic direction.It is important that everyone who operates a bus knows how to operate it safely, know the rules of the road, what to do in case of an accident and knows all of CTA procedures. With the proper training CTA can reduce the number of accidents it has had throughout the years and offer its customers the best transit service. CTA has decided that all training will be done in-house and that all training be conducted by CTA certified Instructors. All instructors are former CTA bus operators who have been bus operators for over 10 years and have a clean driving record.The duties of a bus operator are navigating the bus through an assigned route, manages the collection of bus fares, provides customer service to its passengers, report conditions that could jeopardize the safety of the passenger or other members of the public and maintains contact with dispatch and repo rts current position and conditions affecting the operation of the route as required and assists in loading, securing, and unloading wheelchairs and passengers. Before anyone can start training with CTA there are a few qualifications they must have. They first must pass a personality test.The reason being is to determine what kind of person you are and how you would handle certain situations that may arise while you are operating your bus. Before training can begin all trainees must possess a high school diploma and have basic skills such as writing, communication and reading. Bus operators must be able to communicate with its passengers in a professional manner and along with being able to read road signs. Before trainees start training sessions they will have to possess a clean driving record and a valid class B Commercial DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s License with an unrestricted passenger endorsement.Recommended Training Strategy and Design The training will include classroom work, and on-the road training techniques to ensure that all employees will be prepared for being able to work on their own. The classroom session will consist of learning the operation of a public bus which will include familiarization with all safety features and its system. It will also include learning traffic rules, regulations and laws, learn the fare structure, and learn how to read schedules.Included will also be topics such as how to provide first aid assistance in the event of an accident; promoting transit rider-ship within the Municipality and how to maintain a working relationship that is professional with your coworkers, superiors and passengers. The on-the-road training techniques will consist of how to operate a bus in a safe, efficient and timely manner to comply with all regulatory requirements and all standards. Some of the techniques that will be learned is how to make a right and left turn, how to curb the bus and learning how to change lanes.Training will also include how to o perate and utilize standard safety equipment that is installed in transit passenger vehicles, including; safety harnesses, restraints and other equipment that is required by state and federal regulations. Once this has been established the trainee will team up with a bus line instructor to learn various routes and they will also see how it is to drive in service with passengers. During this time the bus line instructor will observe the traineeÃ¢â¬â¢s driving, collecting pay fares and also how they are dealing with passengers that aboard the bus.All training at CTA consists of 4 weeks, Mon thru Fri 8 hours a day: 2 weeks of classroom work, 1 week of on-the-road training and 1 week of driving with a bus operator to learn all of the routes. Once the trainee has completed these 4 weeks of training they will be required to take a 100 question test on everything that has been learned throughout the training course. In order to pass the training the trainee will be required to pass 80% o f the test. If a trainee does not pass at least 80% of the test they will have one- on-one training with an instructor for 1 week on topics that they are struggling with.After extensive training another test will be given and the trainee must pass this test or else they will not be hired for employment with CTA. Direct Cost| Cost/Benefit Analysis| In-house instructors (20 [emailÃ protected] $480)| $9,600 | Materials ($40 *20 trainees)| $800 | | | | | Compensation for Trainees| | Trainees salaries| $32,000 | | | Total training cost| $42,400 | | | Cost per trainee| $2,120 | Training Evaluation Plan After the trainee has passed all tests and has started working on their own, an instructor will ride with the operator and observed them to see if all rules are being followed properly.Not only will instructors ride with new operators, they will further ride with all operators at random to see if they are following all rules and procedures of the company. CTA will also hire spotters who w ill go out and observe operators to see if procedures are being handled properly and if procedures are not followed the spotter will report the operator to CTA officials. Another thing that CTA does to ensure that training is followed effectively is that once a new bus operator has started they will be evaluated every month for a year to see if there have been any violations or accidents.In addition CTA will also provide on-going education services (recertification class) so that employees may continue to refresh existing qualifications and obtain new skills. This type of training will be given to all employees every two years. A retraining class will also be given to an operator if they have been involved in an accident by which it was their fault. This type of training will consist of what might have been done to avoid the accident along with going over necessary techniques.This training can range from 1 to 5 days depending on how serious the accident was. A test will also be give n following retraining to insure the operator has a thorough understanding of what they have learned and how they can avoid being involved in another accident. CTA must stay committed in making sure that all operators are following proper procedures throughout training evaluation to ensure they are committed to their goal which is provide necessary transit service with the highest standards of quality and safety for its customers.References Chicago Transit Authority. (2011, June 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved , from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Chicago_Transit_Authority;oldid=434808174 Chicago Transit Authority. (2011,June 15). CTA Overview. Retrieved from http://www. transitchicago. com/about/overview. aspx Mass Transit. (2011,June 9) Managers Forum. Retrieved from http://www. masstransitmag. com/article/10220533/managers-forum
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Leadership, Communications, and Teams - Assignment Example As part of the internal communication methods, Wells Fargo enhances the relationship and understanding between supervisors and the employees through various practices such as encouraging the performance of the staffing roles by the managers too (Wells Fargo, 2014). This way, the managers have to consider their responsibilities and role in the employee development as the basis of leading and understanding them. However, culture and language are all essential factors of literacy; in fact, failure to establish them on varying levels dearly affects literacy. Wells Fargo has a unique approach towards teamwork and organizational culture through their extensively efficient functional structure. Even though this structure advocates for separation relative to roles and capabilities, the company has substantial linkages that facilitate vast communication between the employees. The idea of employees from sales working together with colleagues from sales acts as a culture, which simultaneously enhances communication and teamwork (Wells Fargo, 2014). Under the model of team effectiveness described by Daft, this approach is rational as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on function goals facilitates high performance and efficient management. Additionally, the management at Wells Fargo has geared up to recognize the importance of ethical conduct in its regular business practices and has initiated policies to assure that the organization conducts and manages its business in an ethical manner. The main challenge at Wells Fargo is the lack of specification and organization in the application of communication methods. Nonetheless, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s communication plan should exploit the written communications method more entailing the distribution of printed pamphlets, monthly symposiums, aboveboard brochures, reports, discourses and online content; moreover, there will be a calendar developed to mark the different events and steps
Friday, September 27, 2019
Nursing research class ethics - Essay Example I am also an open-minded person. But sometimes I do not recognize my biases. I am in a hurry to beat deadlines. Sometimes, I do not take enough time to gather enough information or do not follow the plan accordingly which results in a poor quality outcome of my critical thinking. But my strongest aspect is turning errors into learning opportunities. It is always a challenge for me to get better the next time when things go wrong. I often tell myself "Nobody's perfect". Failure to me is being mature enough to keep yourself stronger and wiser to change what is best. psychological states after an abortion under this principle is about dealing someone's state of mind with respect and protecting their confidentiality. It is about preserving life of an individual to the maximum extent possible. Since abortion is such a complex issue in our society, it is also about setting aside our biases or issues, focusing the experiences or feelings of the individual who had an abortion and extend help which will maximize benefits to the individual. Justice: Justice is all about the ethical considerations or risks versus benefits leadings to the question of justice. In some states in United States it is illegal to have abortion.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Leadership and Change - Essay Example This study outlines that Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard developed a model known as the Situational Leadership theory. This theory states that there is not only one best way to perform leadership. Leadership style depends upon the situation which arises in the company. A particular leadership style is not applicable in all organizational situations, as different situation demand different leadership style. Effective leadership depends upon the task given, and the most appropriate leaders are the ones who react to the leadership style in accordance with the maturity of the group. Yes, the video was impressive as it acknowledged me with the situational leadership concept. It helped me to understand the reason behind Hersey-Blanchard success. They focused on four leadership behaviors, they are telling, selling, participating and delegating. They even focused on four maturity behaviors. They are competence, willingness, motivation and group competence.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Joe Salatino, President of Great Northern American - Case Study Example Joe can apply the selected learning theory (operant conditioning) in a number of ways to improve his employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. Ã Firstly, this model can be directly linked to good employee morale and thereby indirectly to increased productivity in the workplace. A positive reinforcement in the form of verbal praise or pay increase would assist Joe to elicit a desired employee response. A positive response from employees in turn may aid the company to increase its productivity to a desired level. The Great North American may have numerous business projects to be completed in preplanned time. Such projects would involve a group of employees working together to accomplish a common goal. If any of the project team members fails to meet his/her individual duties and responsibilities, this situation would adversely affect the progress of the entire project. Consequently, such a situation may lead to conflicts among project team members, punishment from top executives, and loss of market reputation. As Fagnani points out, the operant conditioning model makes all employees accountable for their individual actions and attractively rewards outstandingly performing teams (Ã¢â¬Å"Operate conditioningÃ¢â¬ ). Hence, this model may assist Joe to complete business projects successfully on time and within a fixed budget. Ã Effective diversity management is another fruitful advantage of the operant conditioning concept. The emergence of globalization made employees globally mobile and this situation consequently led to increased level of cultural and ethnic diversity within most organizational settings. In this situation, managers with poor communication skill would often fail to communicate with a diverse group of employees effectively and this situation in turn may result in a productivity decline. The case study indicates that the company is growing rapidly. Therefore, Joe must ensure that his managers have the potential to effectively communicate with the growing employee base. In this context, the operant conditioning model would be beneficial for Joe to enhance leadership training programs and thereby make certain that his managers are efficient in handling a global audience.Ã
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The Almeh by Gerome and a woman in the mirror by Lautrec - Term Paper Example The paper "The Almeh by Gerome and a woman in the mirror by Lautrec" analyzes a woman in the mirror by Lautrec and The Almeh by Gerome. The effect of the Middle East region is clear in this presentation as Gerome tries to present a realistic style that reveals another inclination and view towards portraying nude woman and prostitutes, a view that is not acceptable in the Arab world due to the political and cultural inclination that advocates for women decency and fundamental religious doctrine. In this painting, Gerome uses the Western inclination to present an Eastern woman through an orientalist view that more challenges how the women are viewed and the cultural background in which women find themselves chained in the model east. The exotic dancer might therefore be termed as a girl who seeks her freedom and libels against the cultural and political fundamentals to imitate the Western woman who is freer, and has more elaborate rights in deciding their day to day life. The Almeh was an experience of the eastern dancers, who excited many visitors who used to flock to the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Fair to see the dance that represented an extensive history of the Arab women. It was performed by a group of dancers who lived and performed In Luxor, like the dervish ceremonies that were the favorites of many travelers. This was how the dance became to be referred to as the Almeh, after the name that was given to women singers as referred to by the orientalist artists. The dancing of the Almeh drew large crowds on its exhibition.... The art is set in a dim cafe and the painting portrays a young woman dancing before an audience of soldiers. One man claps as another one leans forward. Behind the dancer, there are turbaned musicians sitting floor playing some instruments. Water pipes, guns baskets, brown stripped carpet, are well portrayed. The dancer wears loose and exposing clothes, where her abdomen and breasts are visible, while facing the viewer, and not the audience behind her. As argued above, this painting represents a libel of the Eastern moral and fundamentalism, where women are not allowed to dress in such clothing. The presence of guns might represent the force through which such a moral decadence would be confronted with and as the painting portrays, the dancer faces away from the audience in portraying a liberal attitude of moving away from the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamentalism, and looks towards he viewer who might be referred to as the westernized audience who would certainly welcome this type of dan ce, which is similar to the bellydance that was more pronounced in the western regions. On the other hand Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec Woman before a mirror, 1897 presents the same sentiments as above but in a different dimension. Dumont (8) explains that prostitutes interested Lautrec and he even decorated several brothels with portraits of its inmates. However, he was more impressed by dancers at Moulin Rouge whom he drew in several paintings. Therefore, Lautrec in his work tries to present the social evils and the morals that filled the society. The painting women before a mirror is a social reflection, in which he called upon women to reflect upon themselves, having visited several brothels and experiencing the moral decadence in such places. His painting
Monday, September 23, 2019
Final Film Critique - Research Paper Example The movie has gained worldwide recognition due to it being able to address a large audience on a global scale that has been able to relate with every aspect of it. This paper thus helps to provide an insight into the technical factors of the movie including things like its acting, storyline, cinematography as well as style and direction, and how the story of Juno managed to engage people all over the world and help it become worthy of receiving international accolades. Juno the film has a very basic story line as well as concept attached to the tale; it is about a young girl trying to explore the nooks and crannies of intimacy and relationships without understanding the implications that might arise along with the same. The film has been directed in a very concise manner making use of pencil stylized Ã¢â¬ËrotoscopedÃ¢â¬â¢ images right from the credits in the beginning, making use of animation in order to help the audience understand the maturity level of the girl and the kind of colourful life that she always wanted to live for herself. This entire sequence took a period of seven to eight months to be mastered as each and every shot that follows Juno on her way to the medical pharmacy was taken in short screenings. The set design is incredible, assisting in providing the film with a touch of wonder. The story has been told through the eyes of Juno herself, as she takes the audience along on her woven tale of how she ended up having sexual relations with her classmate whom she did not have any feelings for. The film thus helps teenagers to explore the kind of curiosity that reigns within them, and how the same should be understood not by simply jumping in and trying things out with friends, but by reading about things and comprehending the facts about life from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s parents first. It helps children and young adults to understand how friends might not be the best option when it comes to understanding such information about pregnancy and intercourse. T hese aspects of life are crucial to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s existence and they must be understood well by every individual so that he is able to make his own decisions without falling into trouble or having unplanned circumstances crop up in his life. (Sciretta, Peter) Thus, the film achieved mass appeal because of the story telling as well as how the girl managed to learn her lesson without panicking much about the situation. The various characters within the movie have been portrayed in a very interesting manner. The director has taken his time to choose the main protagonists and provide them with a different twist. Juno is a young teenage girl who comes off a little strong on the first meeting with everyone. Full of sarcasm, she helps to put an indie spin on the movie and gives a very intense performance with her dominating nature and need to control everything that might not even be in her reach. However, she understands where she went wrong by getting pregnant but decides to bring about a change in a coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s life with the help of her baby who she is willing to give up in order to make someone else happy. There was a vast amount of dramatisation in the film played by the other characters, namely JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s parents which helped to calm the situation by making her understand what she had gone through, and helping her come out with a solution rather than screaming at her and making her feel the pain of the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Criminal Justice - Essay Example The term 'punishment' within the realm of psychology has been defined and described by B.F. Skinner, a popular psychologist, as a type of reinforcement - the consequences of which makes a behavior less likely. It includes both positive as well as negative reinforcement. It is also defined as "affecting behavior by using unpleasant consequences" (Weseley and McEntarffer, 2010: 137). Psychologists over the years have identified three fundamental types of learning among individuals. These include classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Among these, the operant conditioning method of learning or reinforcing desirable behavior has been widely applied by the criminal justice systems across the world. Operant conditioning is different as compared to negative reinforcements since unlike the latter, operant conditioning targets the undesirable behavior (such as lying, stealing etc) and eliminates it by punishment (Levinson, 2002). Figure 1: The Operant condit ioning process Source: Vito and Maahs, 2011: 116 Within the field of criminal psychology, the consistency of punishment is given much more significance as compared to the severity of punishment, as it is regarded as highly effective in deterring criminal behavior among individuals (Vito and Maahs, 2011). Relationship to corrections: Punishments are known to be highly effective in drawing favorable responses from the criminals. Historically various forms of punishments such as fines, spankings, imprisonment, and other corporal punishments have been commonly implemented by criminal justice systems as a means to control behavior. According to psychologists punishments have the ability of significantly lowering the possibility of a response to occur again and hence are one of the widely accepted measures of corrections (Coon and Mitterer, 2008). Psychologists have observed through a series of experiments that criminals / individuals in general, tend to teach themselves to obey their con sciences through operant conditioning. It has been observed that criminals displayed weaker responses and higher likelihood to return to normal / acceptable behavior after receiving adverse punishments such as injections or shocks (Levinson, 2002). The psychology of criminal behavior is rooted in the fundamental principles of human behavior such as behavioral, social learning and cognitive psychology. Hence any form of punishment which targets individual behavior or aims to alter their behavioral patterns are known to generate favorable results. According to Spiegler and Gueveremont (1998) "behavior therapy arguably has the broadest and strongest empirical base of any form of psychotherapy". (qtd. in Tonry, 2011: 168) However despite the growing evidence regarding the effectiveness of punishments in deterring crime there is no significant relationship between the severity of punishment and seriousness of the crime committed. It has been observed that criminals charged with relativel y lower offences have been confined to longer terms of imprisonment (Clear, Reisig and Cole, 2012). Critical evaluation: The corrections policy and criminal justice system in general have significantly changed over the years. The highly severe forms of punishme
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The poor relation Essay The stories that I have read both have dreams. Both of the stories have dreams that are virtually impossible to achieve. Although the dreams in the book are set in very different times and are very different to each other, they are suitable for that period of time. Both the authors show that dreams are always present everywhere no matter where they are and when they take place. Both of the authors write from there own past experience, one way or another. George and Lenniei s dream is to liv of the fata the lani. This means that they dream to buy their own land and be there own boss and work there every day. They also want to be fed from there and Lennie wants to tendi his rabbits. As soon as candy finds out that George and Lennie have a dream, Candy buysi in to it by offering all his savings. Lennie and George are outcasts and exiles, the reason for this is for the fact that they are itinerant workers and they always work together and go everywhere with each other. This makes them outcasts because they always go everywhere together where as compare to other people at that moment in time every one went on their own. Michaeli s reality is common and typical. There is nothing fascinating in his life apart from his nephew little Frank. Michael is unemployed and searches for work virtually everyday and he lives on his own. His family sees him as a failure in life. Michael doesni t see himself in that way. In Michaeli s dream he see himself as a rich and a wealthy person whose son like friend little frank is the most important thing to him. Michaeli s dream also comprises a castle in the air, which he possesses and is very proud to have. His dream is about caring for little Frank and being cherished in the society. George and Lenniei s dream farmi is a version of the American dream. All American people dreamt this dream. The dream farmi represents ambition and the possibility of escape from the itinerant workeri s loneliness and poverty. Georgei s vision is an example of the second kind of unhappy vision, when he sees his future as unending, aimless drifting: Ii ll take my fifty bucks ani Ii ll stay all night in some lousy cat house. Or Ii ll set in some pool-room till everi body goes homei i. In the sub-text of The Poor Relationi , Dickens is commenting on the Victorian society. Dickens is trying to say that in Victorian times it was hard to get respected. The most imperative quality at that time was being rich and being a businessman. Dickens is also saying that even if you are respected and are gracious you wont have as much associates as a person who is rich and a businessman. Money was the source to everything at that time, together with friendship. What the America people didni t understand was the fact that the American dream was the American nightmarei. Thati s because only a limited number of Americans could achieve this dream and the rest would just have it as a wish. Everyone could not achieve this dream because all and sundry cannot be there own bossi s as this would lead to an economic collapse. This is why iti s described as the American nightmarei Both authors set their stories in there own times so they can comment upon it. They didni t write stories that were either in the future or the past. They established their stories on reality. Writing in the present increased the number of audiences for the book at that time. The reason for that is because the audience can see themselves fit in to those circumstances. Consequently they would prefer this rather then something that doesni t match their circumstances. The narrative structure used by each writer is very different. Stienbeck has made a play-type of structure. Thati s because at the start of every chapter he describes the setting first and then starts the story. This is completely different to the way that Charles Dickens writes. Charles Dickens uses a frame story containing two inner stories, which are told by Michael. In my opinion this is an arduous way of writing compare to that of Stienbecki s method. The kind of language that the writeri s use is completely different to each other but are both appropriate to the time they wrote in. Stienbeck uses a colloquial style with swear words and slang to add realism to his characters and situation. Like when George says If that crazy bastards foolini around i this style of language was everyday language in that time. The language that Dickens uses is very sophisticated and ornate style; this was appropriate to his literate age. The reason for that is because in that time people tried to gain respect and loyalty so therefore they had to use posh style language. Stienbeck and Dickens both use imagery but Stienbeck uses a lot of imagery compare to Dickens. The only important imagery that Dickens uses is that of the Castle of the Airi imagery, whereas Stienbeck uses a lot of imageries like in the first section of the book he says i On the sand-banks the rabbits sat quietly as little grey, sculptured stonei. Another imagery that he uses is i A big carp rose to the surface of the pool, gulped air, and then sank mysteriously in to the dark water againi i Stienbeck uses a lot of different types of imagery where as Dickens uses a limited amount. Both of the authors are trying to state the fact that dreams doni t always come true. The society denies it one way or another. Michaeli s dream is impossible to achieve simply because a castle in the air is impossible to construct, but the atmosphere that he wishes to have is possible to have which is that he wants people to care and have admiration for him. George and Lenniei s dream is destroyed by the society, people who were in the bunkhouse. Their dream is destroyed by the society because Lenniei s mistake which led to his own death. This was very misfortunate for George and Lenniei s dream. Although the storyline of both of the books are different, the point that they are trying to make is very analogous to each other which is that dreams can be denied be society. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Steinbeck section.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Influences on TV Idents Kira Richards Television idents are an important feature of television channels, they are created toentice, remind and provoke a sense offamiliarity for the audience, this is done by making the appeal specifically to the its target audience. Each TV Ident includes the logo of the channel and sometimes may feature a continuity announcer. In this essay I will be discussing how marketing, branding, packaging and re packaging, scheduling and segmentation, have an impact on television idents and why they are important when considering the purposes of idents. TV idents are used to advertise a channel, in recent times television production has progressed at a rapid pace, since the expansion of cable satellite and digital TV. This has led to a growth of television channels , with there now being over 135 channels available to watch. The expansion of the market cooperate has a large importance, as viewers are now offered a larger selection of channels to tune into. It is now even more important to make sure that the aesthetic look and the tone of the channel are instantly recognisable and appealing to its target audience. In order to make sure the viewer tunes into their channel. On average it is said that people only watch the same 6 to 7 channels, the broadcasters of the channel want to be a part of the top 5 choices of channels, for people to choose from. This means that it is important for their ident to help the viewer recognise the channel instantly and know what their channel stands for. Their ident is created to sum up the personality of the channel and helps the viewer to make a choice as to what channel they will choose watch. Channels also try to keep the viewer within their brand of channels , to ensure that the viewer is viewing a show within their network. For example the BBC will tell you what program is coming up on any other BBC channel with this they hope to get the viewer to either stay on the existing channel or help them to find a program that they may have an interest in on the others. As well as keeping the viewer within the network the channel tries to win over the audience to try to entice them to stay on the current channel they may inform viewers of programs that are coming up and break up the scheduling so if the viewer sees that a program that they enjoy is coming up they may just stay on the channel instead of going to the other. Packaging is an important way to appeal to the audiences of the channel each channels TV idents have relevance to the target audience for the channel This can be seen with the BBC channels there a 4 different channels each catering to different target audiences BBC 3 which is aimed at 16-25 year olds contrasts largely to the BBC 4 whos programs target a much more mature audience. Another purpose of television idents is marketing purposes. The creation of Idents are way for TV channel , to show them at the starts and ends of a tv channel and during advert breaks this technique can have more than one use firstly to remind viewers of the channel that they are currently on and to advertise the branding identity that is represented through the ident. This is because the branding and identity, represented through their ident, may appeal to the viewer, and this will therefore result in the viewer most likely returning to the channelto watch other programs because they like the identity of the channel, and will most likelylike the types of programs they air too. During special seasons, events TV idents may repackage there TV idents, this is done to fit in with certain themes. ITV have always changed their ident over the years, most recently there idents have been rebranded to become more up to date to compete with more channels, in the new rebranded idents different footage of everyday life situation is used to try to reflect the channels new wider audience. This differs from its previous design which was more adult orientated. It is important to schedule an ident at certain time so that it is relevant to the time of day and program that will be shown, Segmentation is essential for channels so that they can remind the viewer of the channel that they are currently watching this helps to reinforce the brands identity to the viewer and represent what the channel stands for. The type of ident that is displayed will depend on the time and program that is going to be shown for example if I program was to air pre watershed at around 3.30 pm when a child finishes school they would use an ident that would reflect the type of show this could be for a TV channel such as CITV , alternatively the channel fox uses an ident that features a man pointing a gun this ident has relevance to the show walking dead which airs around 9 pm this would be inappropriate for young viewers due to its adult themes. Part 2- The design of an ident is also important as it is one of the main ways that a company is able to get across the purpose and the message of the ident to the audience , it is also the main representation of the channels identity. The design of the ident reflects how the audience will see them and influence whether a person will watch the channel. In the second part of the the assignment I will considering the design of the idents and the effects that it has on the audience. Channel fours Tokyo themed ident ,suggests that channel 4 is broadcasting shows that are multinational and appeal to a wide audience the ident itself features bright colours and large levitating objects that form into the channel 4 logo when the camera is panning this makes the logo stands and becomes instantly recognisable. This ident lasts for 42 seconds long with a slow to medium tempo the ident lasts long enough for the audience to see the setting environment which is set in the busy streets this is seen during the panning of the camera due to the fact that you can seen by the Japanese writing on the billboards that eventually form the logo. The music composition that is used is slow and calm to match the general mood the ident. The target audience for this ident is adults this can be told by the scheduling of the idents is around 9 pm The ident is an entertainment as the ident seems entertaining and amusing it is very creative compared to the earlier idents. This ident is also information led as it informs the viewer of the programming that will be airing next. The overall purpose of this ident is to advertise channel 4 in a way that is both cleaver and creative so that it establish and reflect the channels identity. The reference to the channel 4 logo gives this channel its identity like most idents do and constantly remind the audience of what channel they are watching to simultaneously advertise their channel. BBC 3 This ident has been created by BBC three, the design of the ident has a trendy and techno theme that appeals to a younger audience and fits the target audience for the channel. The target audience for the channel is 16- 25 year old .The ident is very fast paced similar to the CBBC ident as this much more appealing to a younger audience this is because the channel airs programs that are more appealing relatable to that age group similarly to the previous ident this ident is entertainment led the ident as it supposed to suggest a sense of discovery it links to the comedy, entertainment and factual programming that airs regularly on the channel. This ident was created for the CBBC, and is market for the audience of the channel of the ages 7- 12 years old. The ident appeals to children of that ages due to the bright colours that are used , CBBCs main colour is green this could symbolise the safety and peace that the channel represents which is an appropriate tone for a childrens channel ident. and the fast pace of the ident. In this ident Santa is seen carrying presents he trips over and all of the presents fall out of his hand , we then see Rudolph with Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ in lights across his antlers and the words BBC in his mouth this is due to the fact that BBC stands for the childrens BBCÃ¢â¬ . This would attract the target audience because its childish and fun which fits in with general programming of the channel. This ident informs the target audience that it is Christmas time and uses the theme of Santa present it.. The screen tempo is used well as the timing the animation moves goes along with the backg round music goes well and there is also extra sound like lights buzzing .This ident is entertainment led as it features different characters and content that children of that age enjoy. Channel 4 original ident The first TV idents for channel 4 was released in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. It had a very simple purpose, which is to establish channel 4s corporate identity and to help reflect this on their programming. due to the technology available in the 80 the ident is very basic and isnt very technical. Generally the overall purpose of this ident is is to advertise channel 4 in a simple way so that it can help reflect the channels identity. The music behind the ident is channel 4 signature theme Four Score the ident is very simple compared to the Tokyo themed ident which is much more creative ,during the ident shapes come together to create the four shape this is done in the same way as the Tokyo ident showing that channel 4 has kept a consistent theme throughout the years. This ident is information led due to the fact that it is very simple and basic , it is mainly used to inform the viewer what is coming up.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
T. Coraghessan BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s "Greasy Lake" and "Big Game" are similarly structured but completely different short stories that explain the transitions of people from fake slaves of their image to genuine and realized individuals. If not portrayed in the stories, the development in the characters certainly escapes into the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination and almost magically makes them the learned. The plot of the two stories is one of the strongest lines connecting them together by way of foundation, but at the same time it establishes completely different story lines that follow the same beat. BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution from "Greasy Lake" to "Big Game" has also provided for a progression in his style. Evident from the two stories is the contrasted amounts of detail and abstract detail. In some sense, Boyle has mellowed over the two stories by leaving out many of the twists and turns of "Greasy Lake" in "Big Game," but in the same sense has become more exciting with more violence and action. The plots in the two stories are similar in structure and pattern of action. They both include violence and regretful lessons learned the hard way, and seam to involve similar events and characters. A definite change in BoyleÃ¢â¬â¢s plot over the course of the two stories however, is the loss in significance and importance of the plot and the take over by setting and character instead. &...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Burnning Notebooks as Therapy For many people, the purpose of journaling is a sort of catharsis. With pen on paper, they are able to work through problems and issues. These problems are overcome simply by allowing time to process these tribulations enough to form sentences about them. I too use writing for this purpose. However, I often do not allow writing to be the last step in my emotional eradication. I was seventeen the first time I held a match to a completed page, but lighting the fire is the last step. Before a notebook can be burned, it must first be filled; this isn't an easy task. A Mead composition notebook contains one hundred sheets--or two hundred pages. The goal in essence is to write. As each word flows onto the paper through the pen, some event must set the precedent; be it long narrations of break-ups or pained descriptions of breakdowns, copious amounts of material must pave the way--the emotionally passive life cannot be translated onto paper. However, for those who can complete the task, the reward comes when the back cover is closed. It is then that the... Burnning Notebooks as Therapy Essay -- Personal Narrative Writing Burnning Notebooks as Therapy For many people, the purpose of journaling is a sort of catharsis. With pen on paper, they are able to work through problems and issues. These problems are overcome simply by allowing time to process these tribulations enough to form sentences about them. I too use writing for this purpose. However, I often do not allow writing to be the last step in my emotional eradication. I was seventeen the first time I held a match to a completed page, but lighting the fire is the last step. Before a notebook can be burned, it must first be filled; this isn't an easy task. A Mead composition notebook contains one hundred sheets--or two hundred pages. The goal in essence is to write. As each word flows onto the paper through the pen, some event must set the precedent; be it long narrations of break-ups or pained descriptions of breakdowns, copious amounts of material must pave the way--the emotionally passive life cannot be translated onto paper. However, for those who can complete the task, the reward comes when the back cover is closed. It is then that the...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Toni Morrison's Sula In the book Sula by Toni Morrison, MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s ambiguous link between good, evil, and guilt, she is able to show that these terms are relative to each other and often occur mutually. In her comparison of good and evil, Sula states that "Being good to somebody is just like being mean to somebody. Risky. You don't get nothing for it" (145). Good and evil are being compared as if they are equal and that is how the book is structured. For instance, Eva's burning of Plum is a complex conjunction of motherly love and practicality and cannot be described as simply being a good act or a bad one. The killing of Chicken Little is a similarly ambiguous situation from which Sula and Nel's feelings are unclear. Lastly Sula, upon her death bed, questions what it means to be good and suggests that it what may be considered bad could in reality be good. Both in the syncopated style of Morrison's writing and the morally ambiguous portrayal of characters, cause the reader to question morals and think about them on a larger scale. Although on the surface, Eva's burning of Plum appears as a ghastly and un-motherly act (not to say that it isn't ghastly), with more analysis becomes a more perplexing question. When Eva pours kerosene on Plum, it is described as a sort of baptism, "He opened his eyes and saw what he imagined was the great wing of an eagle pouring a wet lightness over him. Some kind of baptism, some kind of blessing he thought" (47). Eva believes that she is liberating Plum from his depressed, drugged life and saving his soul. The eagle that plum imagines seeing is a symbol of liberty and the wing is a symbol for maternal love as a bird may nestle its chicks with its wing. Even when Nel later visits Eva in the nursing home, Eva approves of her liberation of Plum. She disapproves of Nel and Sula's throwing Chicken Little in the water, yet justifies killing Plum by saying, "It's awful cold in the water. Fire is warm. How did you get him in?" (168). Sula and Nel are both guilty for Chicken LittleÃ¢â¬â¢s death, one for throwing him into the river and the other for watching it. No one is going to defend their actions, however whether Nel is guilty or not is a far more difficult question.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Often in literature, symbolism is used to represent ideas or meanings in a metaphorical sense. However, in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, King Lear, the symbolism of blindness is used both in a metaphorical and literal way. This symbolism can first be seen in the metaphorical blindness of Lear, and then Gloucester, which then leads to the literal blindness of Gloucester later on in the play. These examples of blindness are an important part of King Lear because they help the reader to better understand the themes that Shakespeare wanted to convey through his work.The symbol of blindness can be found in the very first scene of the play, when Lear is demanding praise from his daughters to decide who will receive the better part of the land when he gives up his throne. He is metaphorically blinded by his pride and arrogance when his eldest daughter, Cordelia, replies by saying nothing. Lear is enraged, Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing will come of nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦Here I disclaim all my paternal careÃ¢â¬ ¦And as a stranger to my heart and me Hold thee from this foreverÃ¢â¬ (I. i. 89-114), and he foolishly banishes the only daughter who truly loves him.He cannot see that through CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s silence, she is actually saying much more than her sisters, who were deceiving their father in order to receive power. Through the example of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, the theme that pride and arrogance can blind you is presented to the reader and continues on to evolve into a major theme of the play. Another theme that is introduced through the symbol of blindness is that people are easily deceived by others. This theme is apparent when Gloucester is deceived by his bastard son, Edmund. His plan is to deceive his father in order to Ã¢â¬Å"if not by birth, have lands by wit.Ã¢â¬ (I. ii. 164).He is so desperate for power that he goes to the extreme of putting his brother in danger due the fake letter he gave to Gloucester, making him believe Edgar had turned against him. Gloucester is blinded b y EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s trickery and lies to the point where he orders for Edgar to be killed. Through his example of metaphorical blindness, Gloucester becomes an example of the theme that blindness leads to people being easily deceived by others. Gloucester is also an example of the literal symbolism of blindness that Shakespeare uses in King Lear.In the third act, comes the bloodiest part of the tragedy; Gloucester is literally blinded by Cornwall for helping Lear escape to Dover. After having both of his eyes plucked out, Gloucester asks to see his son Edmund, whom he believes is there to protect him. Regan reveals the truth to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou callÃ¢â¬â¢st on him that hates thee. It was he That made the overture of thy treason to us, Who is too good to pity thee,Ã¢â¬ (III. vii. 88-90), and Gloucester then realizes he has been deceived by Edmund and wronged his son Edgar. By not seeing EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s treachery until he was blind, Gloucester presents another theme, blindness can lead to truth.By saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I stumbled when I saw,Ã¢â¬ (IV. i. 19) Gloucester helps the reader to understand that seeing can blind us from the truth. Through the symbol of blindness, whether metaphorical or literal, the meaning of the play is greatly enhanced by the themes the symbol presents. The reader can better understand the meanings and ideas that Shakespeare intended to portray through his characters. Lear and Gloucester, through their metaphorical and literal examples, allow the symbol to be used as an important part of the play. Symbol Essay on King Lear Often in literature, symbolism is used to represent ideas or meanings in a metaphorical sense. However, in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, King Lear, the symbolism of blindness is used both in a metaphorical and literal way. This symbolism can first be seen in the metaphorical blindness of Lear, and then Gloucester, which then leads to the literal blindness of Gloucester later on in the play. These examples of blindness are an important part of King Lear because they help the reader to better understand the themes that Shakespeare wanted to convey through his work.The symbol of blindness can be found in the very first scene of the play, when Lear is demanding praise from his daughters to decide who will receive the better part of the land when he gives up his throne. He is metaphorically blinded by his pride and arrogance when his eldest daughter, Cordelia, replies by saying nothing. Lear is enraged, Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing will come of nothingÃ¢â¬ ¦Here I disclaim all my paternal careÃ¢â¬ ¦And as a stranger to my heart and me Hold thee from this foreverÃ¢â¬ (I. i. 89-114), and he foolishly banishes the only daughter who truly loves him. He cannot see that through CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s silence, she is actually saying much more than her sisters, who were deceiving their father in order to receive power. Through the example of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, the theme that pride and arrogance can blind you is presented to the reader and continues on to evolve into a major theme of the play.Another theme that is introduced through the symbol of blindness is that people are easily deceived by others. This theme is apparent when Gloucester is deceived by his bastard son, Edmund. His plan is to deceive his father in order to Ã¢â¬Å"if not by birth, have lands by wit.Ã¢â¬ (I. ii. 164). He is so desperate for power that he goes to the extreme of putting his brother in danger due the fake letter he gave to Gloucester, making him believe Edgar had turned against him. Gloucester is blinded by EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s trickery and lies to the point where he orders for Edgar to be killed. Through his example of metaphorical blindness, Gloucester becomes an example of the theme that blindness leads to people being easily deceived by others.Gloucester is also an example of the literal symbolism of blindness that Shakespeare uses in King Lear. In the third act, comes the bloodiest part of the tragedy; Gloucester is literally blinded by Cornwall for helping Lear escape to Dover. After having both of his eyes plucked out, Gloucester asks to see his son Edmund, whom he believes is there to protect him.Regan reveals the truth to him, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou callÃ¢â¬â¢st on him that hates thee. It was he That made the overture of thy treason to us, Who is too good to pity thee,Ã¢â¬ (III. vii. 88-90), and Gloucester then realizes he has been deceived by Edmund and wronged his son Edgar. By not seeing EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s treachery until he was blind, Gloucester presents another theme, blindness can lead to truth. By saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I stumbled when I saw,Ã¢â¬ (IV. i. 19) Gloucester helps the reader to understand that seeing can blind us from the truth.Through the symbol of blindness, whether metaphorical or literal, the meaning of the play is greatly enhanced by the themes the symbol presents. The reader can better understand the meanings and ideas that Shakespeare intended to portray through his characters. Lear and Gloucester, through their metaphorical and literal examples, allow the symbol to be used as an important part of the play.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
A trend has started in the recent years, where people participate in organizations that commonly claim to be helping developing countries. This trend is fuelled by the gap year phenomenon, which is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a period of time between 3 and 24 months taken out of education or a work career.Ã¢â¬ (Jones, 2004) With enthusiasm of Ã¢â¬Å"making a differenceÃ¢â¬ , more and more people choose voluntourism, combination of tourism and volunteer projects, as their gap year holiday option. Despite the well-intended enthusiasm, opinions regarding the contribution of voluntourism on local community are divided. The primary issue of debate is whether voluntourism provide help to the local communities. While some researchers using surveys find local people satisfied with volunteer tourists, other research investigating quality, tasks, motivation and local need of voluntourism have found it doing more harm than good. Such a harmful trend has made the UK director of VSO, one of the baggie st and earliest international development charity, warn Ã¢â¬Å"Young people want to make difference through volunteering, but they would better off travellingÃ¢â¬ ¦rather than wasting time on projects that have no impactÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Ward, 2007) In this paper, we will evaluate both side of the debate and carefully assess the value of voluntourism for local community. In order to assess the benefit given by volunteer tourists, it is essential to look at the quality of the helpers. Unskilled volunteers may be a burden to local communities that have to take care of them. As Stephan peck, operations director at the Scout Association, puts it Ã¢â¬Å"[bad volunteers] are like a cancerÃ¢â¬ (Ainsworth, 2012). Therefore, the volunteer selection process is critical in recruiting needed and appropriate volunteers that benefit local communities. While supporters of voluntourism claims those volunteers as satisfying, looking into their selection experience shall make it clear that these tourists are hardly qualified as helpful volunteers. Research done by Richard Forsythe in Ghana vlountourism showed that only 36% of all studied volunteer applicants in various fields went through application process more complicated than filling appli cation forms, and Ã¢â¬Å"no individuals remarked upon the selection process as a particularly challenging experience, and indeed several of the organizations interviewed admitted to accepting Ã¢â¬Ëalmost all volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ having Ã¢â¬Ëvery few requirements, and taking Ã¢â¬Ëanyone who is interestedÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Forsythe, 2011). Recruitment through application forms or basic information can only depend on the self-evaluation of applicants, who probably had no volunteering experience, as to whether they will be helpful to the local community. With such a lenient selection, the volunteers selected are much more likely to be burden than help to local volunteers and community who cry out: Ã¢â¬Å"A lot of people have very unrealistic expectations about overseas volunteering, and they want to be there for only a month or less and have no skills that are critically needed in the developing worldÃ¢â¬ (Huang, 2012). People may expect those unqualified volunteers to receive some training before starting work, but research has also showed that volunteer tourists receive almost no training. When they do receive information, much of it is about the culture and language, safety and packing with little attention toward the skills and duties involved within the volunteer placements (Forsythe, 2011). Furthermore, no more than half the volunteers received supervision or guidance during the placement (Forsythe, 2011). The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s local presence is indispensible for placementsÃ¢â¬â¢ appropriate, long-term effectiveness and safety of volunteers. With the growing number of teenagers participating in volunteer tours, supervision and protection by organization are vital. However, some volunteers set out with enthusiastic motivation ends up in a awkward situation as Hannah Saunders, a gap year volunteer: Ã¢â¬Å"When I arrivedÃ¢â¬ ¦they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know I was coming or what to do with me.Ã¢â¬ (Ward, 2007) Although the volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ intention maybe beneficial, they are unqualified, untrained and unguided. Such groups of volunteers can hardly provide any high-quality help that is needed by local communities. Supporters of voluntourism may cling onto the motivation behind voluntourism to justify the trend. Indeed, motivation is also a factor often discussed when talking about the benefits of voluntourism. Supporters of voluntourism argue actions that come from altruistic intension to help, although may not provide substantial help, are at least better than nothing. The supporters say that by just participating and showing concern, it is already helping the people in dispair. It is literally, Ã¢â¬Å"you are the difference!Ã¢â¬ With the belief in altruism, people advertise voluntourism, Ã¢â¬Å"in which enthusiasm and good intentions are allowed to prevailÃ¢â¬ (Simpson, 2004). However, it seems the good intension behind voluntourism is not enough to be allowed to Ã¢â¬Å"prevailÃ¢â¬ . While many people wish to believe that motivation behind volunteering abroad is purely altruistic, research using evolutionally, social psychological, organizational and game theoretic literature as fram ework, has found that, in general, people volunteered most often when personal benefits are high (Murnighan, Kim, & Metzger, 1993). Consistent with this result, almost all authors of articles about voluntourism, even the supporters, agree that voluntourism does not come from purely altruistic motivation. Despite the difference in motivational factors concluded by different authors, all of them agree that these motivations outweigh altruism (Forsythe, 2011;Corti, Marola, & Castro, 2010;Wearing 2001; Brown, 2005; Cohen, Reichel, Shwartz, & Uriely, 2002; Tosun, 2000; Unstead-Jones, 2008). It is commonly agreed that volunteer tourists plan to satisfy the needs of communities through meeting their own needs such as Ã¢â¬Å"experiencing culturesÃ¢â¬ . If actions from altruism intention are the ones that give hope and Ã¢â¬Å"prevailÃ¢â¬ , voluntourism with self-centered motivation is not one. Furthermore, less concern in local community than in self-gain may result in idealized, incorrect assumption about local needs. Reflecting this worry about incorrect assumption, Sacha Brown, Program Manager of World Youth Intern ational, a NGO taking volunteers overseas for their development projects says, Ã¢â¬Å" there is a lot of development that is useless and is based on erroneous assumptions around what is Ã¢â¬ËbestÃ¢â¬â¢ for the community or countryÃ¢â¬ (Huang, 2012). Inexperienced volunteersÃ¢â¬â¢ erroneous expectations on local needs, together with their self-centered concerns, make them concentrate on their own enjoyment without examining what help is needed. Organizations that seek to profit from voluntourism may increase rather than reduce neglect of local need. The director of VSO is worried that competition between organizations may lead to more emphasis on volunteer enjoyment and Ã¢â¬Å"may not deliver the maximum benefits to the communities these people are working inÃ¢â¬ . (Huang, 2012) Indeed, one of the organizations interviewed by Forsythe implied that its placements were driven by preferences of volunteers rather than local needs. It is not only researchers who are concerned about whether volunteering touristsÃ¢â¬â¢ helps are actually needed. Some volunteers interviewed by Justine Tillon express their feeling of lack of acceptance by local government and citizens. Some of them felt that Ã¢â¬Å"the government and local citizens are forced to be helped by the participantsÃ¢â¬ . When there is evidence that help is Ã¢â¬Å"forcedÃ¢â¬ on local people, maybe we should really ask ourselves: Ã¢â¬Å"Does this kind of help make a peaceful word?Ã¢â¬ All has been said, some supporters may provide research that show local satisfaction toward volunteer tourists. One of such research about Moroccan studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction toward foreign volunteer teachers of French and English showed 79% of appreciation (Corti et al., 2010). The rate is indeed high, but we should look closer into this study. The job of the volunteers studied is to give English and French classes during vacation of school year. Out of 253 students who enrolled, 32.41% left to travel with their parents in the middle of classes (Corti et al., 2010). Although the desistance rate already implies that local community regards the classes as unserious holiday childcare rather than structured learning experience, several other questions can be raised against results of this and similar other studies. First, does the rate actually reflect the work done by volunteer teachers? The improvement in studentÃ¢â¬â¢s language skills is not measured in the study. Since it was students who answered those surveys, it is questionable whether they looked at bigger picture and thought the experience educating or they were just excited to see foreigners. Inferring from previous evaluation of quality, training and supervision of volunteers, these teachers are likely to be unqualified as teachers. Of course supporters may say that the satisfaction rate is indeed the proof that the volunteers are qualified. That raises a second question. Is it voluntourism per se that is benefiting? Do they have to be volunteer tourists or they can be anyone? Considering that English and French are both official language of Morocco, classes given by mixture of nonnative and native speakers of the languages may hardly made any difference from that by local Moroccans who speak both languages. It is not clear whether the 79% satisfaction was toward Ã¢â¬Å"volunteers from abroadÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"people who helpedÃ¢â¬ . Questions about the touristsÃ¢â¬â¢ help per se have been studied in different contexts. Study in Gahanna showed that many volunteers are placed in daily tasks and traditional chores such as bathing, dressing, feeding and supervising of children, that can be done by anyone else (Fosythe, 2011). To justify voluntourism itself, studies about unique benefit of voluntourism need be carried out. Through this paper, we have evaluated the quality, motivation and local need of voluntourism. While there are some studies showing satisfactions toward voluntourism presented, several essential questions are raised. Through evaluation, it became clear that volunteer tourists are unskilled, authentically motivated, and to certain extent, unwelcomed. Although it may be a valuable experience for tourists, it seems that voluntourism carry few value, if not harm, to local community. Whether or not it is primary desire, the desire to volunteer is laudable. However, we need to tread more carefully, especially when dealing with people who are already suffering. Unless we have enough knowledge and transferrable skills, we might do better to travel and bring money into developing countries. Works Cited Ainsworth, D. (2012). Bad volunteers are like a cancer, says Scout Association director. Third Sector Online . Brown, S. (2005). Understanding the motives and benefits of voluntourists: What makes them tick? Retrieved from http://www.voluntourism.org/newsstudyandresearc h1005.htm Cohen, E., Reichel, A., Schwartz, Z., & Uriely, N. (2002). ). Rescuing hikers in IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s deserts: Community altruism or an extension of adventure tourism? . Journal of Leisure Research . Corti, I. N., Marola, P. N., & Castro, M. B. (2010). Social Inclusion and Local Development through European Voluntourism: A Case Study of the Project Realized in a Neighborhood of Morocco. merican Journal of Economics and Business Administration 2 . Forsythe, R. (2011). Helping or hindering? Volunteer tourism in Ghana and its critical role in development . Huang, A. (2008, 8 1). Voluntourism: Benifit or Harm? Retrieved from Yahoo! voices: http://voices.yahoo.com/voluntourism-benefit-harm-775403.html?cat=9 Jones, A. (2004). Review of Gap Year Provision. Murnighan, J. K., Kim, J. W., & Metzger, A. R. (1993). the Volunteer Dilemma. Administrative Science Quarterly . Simpson, K. (2004). Ã¢â¬ËDoing DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢: The Gap Year, Volunteer Tourists and a Popular Practice of Development. Journal of International Development . Taillon, J. (2007). The Identification of Motivation in Voluntourists: Particularly Extrinsic Motivators in Vacation-Minded Volunteer Tourism Participants. Retrieved from http://justintaillon.com/FINAL% 20PAPER.doc Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. . Tourism Management . Unstead-Jones, R. (2008). An Analysis of Volunteer Motivation: Implications for International Development. The Journal of the Institute for Volunteering Research . Ward, L. (2007). YouÃ¢â¬â¢re better off backpacking-VSO warns about perils of Ã¢â¬ËvoluntourismÃ¢â¬â¢. The Guardian . Wearing, S. (2001). Volunteer tourism: Experiences that Make a Difference. CABI Publishing.
Over the past decade, Hollywood has begun to turn to history as the source of inspiration for some of its award-winning movies. Most, if not all, of these films would be promoted by the producers, directors and even actors of the film as those that are as close to historical accounts and documentations about these events and individuals. Although this may be the case, a portion of the scenes shown in movies based on events and prominent individuals in history have been included in order to add to the drama and action to the film even if the scene does not have any historical documentation to support the scene to be included.In some cases, certain parts of an otherwise historical event may also be changed in order to make it more striking and memorable to the audience. The paper will provide an analysis on the accuracy of the events presented in the Academy Award-winning movie Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ starring Mel Gibson. The paper would provide a summary of important key points prese nted in the movie. Specifically, the paper would look into the accuracy of the battles portrayed in the movie to research conducted by historians with regards to Sir William Wallace, the hero depicted in this epic movie.The paper would also look into the viability of the romantic affair between Sir William Wallace and the Princess of France and the surrounding circumstances as depicted in the movie. Summary of Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ In order to analyze the accuracy of the situations and events of the movie Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ , a summary of the movie must first be provided. The film begins in Scotland in the year 1280 AD. The death of the king of Scotland left the country without a ruler of its own as the king did not have a son to leave the kingdom to.As a result, the rulers from neighboring countries began to compete with each other for the crown and ownership of the kingdom of Scotland. The most formidable of these competitors was Edward the Longshanks, king of England. His claim over Scotland was met with hostility from the commoners of the land. In order to extinguish any retaliation on the part of the common people of Scotland, Edward the Longshanks arranged a meeting whereby each leader of the different shires of Scotland were invited to attend, allowing them to bring along only one page as their companion.Among those who have been invited was a commoner named Malcolm Wallace who decided to take his eldest son, John, with him to the meeting. They were delayed to arrive to the meeting as Malcolm had to convince his youngest son, William, that he was still too young to go to the journey with them. Upon their arrival, Malcolm Wallace had realized that his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence had saved him from walking into a trap that had been orchestrated by Edward the Longshanks. All the attendees in the supposed meetings were hung inside the cottage where the meeting was supposed to have taken place, including the women and children.William, who had tried to follow his father and brother to the meeting, saw the brutality of the scenario Ã¢â¬â a vision that had left a lasting mark to the young boy (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). The brutality of the scene prompted Malcolm Wallace to stir some of the leaders in the shire to attempt a violent response for what Edward the Longshanks had committed to their fellow men. Unfortunately, the effort was a failed attempt, and Malcolm and his son were killed in the battle. On the day that his father and brother were buried, his uncle, Argyle, took him into his care (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ).The film then fast forwards to a few years later. Edward the Longshanks, in his quest to rule over all of Europe, formed an allegiance with his rival, the King of France, through the marriage of the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter to Edward the LongshankÃ¢â¬â¢s son and heir to the throne. Meanwhile, in Edinburgh, the Scottish nobles had formed a council. Included in the council was the 17th Earl of Bruce named Robert, who has been considered to be the leading contender to the crown of Scotland. Among the topics that begun to concern the council was the issuance of the decree of prima nocte by Edward the Longshanks.This gave nobles who have sworn their allegiance to the King of England the privilege to sleep with any newly married common woman on the first night as a married woman. This was done in an effort to encourage more Scottish nobles to swear allegiance to the King of England which then would lead to the surety of Edward the LongshankÃ¢â¬â¢s hold over Scotland (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). It was around this time that William Wallace, now an adult, returns to the shire that he had left when he was a young orphan.He reunites himself with Hamish, his childhood friend and the young woman named Murron who, during his father and brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s burial, offered him a flower as a sign of sympathy. Because of the prima nocte decree, William and Murron married in secret and thus allowing William the privilege that most other men in the shire had been deprived of (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). The turning point for the pace of the movie and the life of William Wallace occurred just a few days after his secret marriage.A soldier of the English crown attempted to force himself on the young woman, but she had fought and, through the help of William, freed herself but only for a while. She was eventually caught by the soldiers and was executed in front of the entire town as an example on what would happen to them should they try to oppose any representative of the king of England, be it a soldier or a noble since according to the nobleman, an opposition to any individual representing the king of England is an opposition to the King himself (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ).The death of Murron and the reasoning of the noble had caused William Wallace to begin a revolution beginning in his own town. His passion and determination to rid the country of the English had made a lot of Scottish c ommoners take up arms and join him in his cause. Town after town, he and his band of men which eventually led to the joining of the forces of the Scots and the Irish, had made the townspeople consider him as a legend and tales began to spread about him (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ).News had reached the King of England and sent his daughter-in-law, the Princess of France, as an ambassador to negotiate some form of truce and ceasefire with William Wallace, who by now had been knighted by the Council of Scots, headed by Robert the Bruce. Wallace declined the offer of Edward the Longshanks by relaying to the future queen the haunting scene that he had stumbled on when he was a boy and when the King of England first offered a truce to the people of Scotland.Not only did the Princess of France become amazed by the intelligence that Wallace had exhibited, but she also began to grow fond of him in a romantic way (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). When she returned to London and delivered the message of William Wallace to the king, he decided to go into war with Wallace again. This time, he was to have a larger army by tapping into the allegiances that he had formed through the years. When news of this reached William Wallace through the help of the Princess of France, Wallace went to the Council of Scots to ask them to join their cause.Initially, Robert the Bruce gave Wallace his word and so did the other members of the council. However, on the day of the battle, Wallace first experienced betrayal when he saw two of the council men that showed up with their respective armies had turned around after being bribed by the King of England, and then later when he discovered that Robert the Bruce himself was fighting alongside the King of England as well (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). Upon seeing the effects of his betrayal to Wallace, Robert the Bruce was overcome with guilt and as a means to try to amend for his betrayal, helped Wallace escape the battlefield.This allowed Wallace to ta ke revenge on the two noblemen who have betrayed him in the battlefield (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). With news of WallaceÃ¢â¬â¢s escape reaching the King of England, another attempt was made on his life. This plot was overheard by the Princess of France, who again warned Wallace of the assassination attempt. Unfortunately, the third time, Wallace was finally apprehended. Robert the Bruce sent word to William Wallace that he would like to talk and make amends for his previous betrayal.Still trusting the Bruce, and realizing the need for a larger army to continue the cause, Wallace went to the residence of the Bruce alone and unarmed. Unknown to both Robert the Bruce and William Wallace, the other members of the Council, through the guidance of Robert the BruceÃ¢â¬â¢s father, made arrangements to hand William Wallace over to the King of England (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). William Wallace was tried for high treason against the King of England and was sentenced to be executed the fol lowing day. Knowing about this, the Princess of France begged for the life of William Wallace to the King of England as he lies on his deathbed.When the king refused to grant the request of the princess, she then made it known to the dying king that she was pregnant with the child of William Wallace, his mortal adversary (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). Wallace suffered a horrendous and slow death through a process called hung, drawn and quartered. With his last breath, he shouted with all his might the word Ã¢â¬Å"FreedomÃ¢â¬ , a cry that stirred the hearts of his comrades who witnessed his execution in the crowd. After he was beheaded, the body of William Wallace was cut into pieces and placed in different locations to serve as a warning to anyone who tries to go against the King of England.His head was situated on London Bridge, while his arms and legs were sent to the four corners of England. The movie ends with the narration on how instead of deterring any form of resistance towar ds the crown of England, the opposite had actually happened. In the year 1314, despite the Scottish army headed by Robert the Bruce were lacking in resources and heavily outnumbered, had won the freedom of their land from English rule in the battle that occurred on the field of Bannockburn (Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬ ). Analysis of the Accuracy of Ã¢â¬Å"BraveheartÃ¢â¬
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Introduction This essay deals with the holistic assessment of a patient who was admitted onto the medical ward where I undertook my placement. Firstly, the relevant life history of the patient will be briefly explained. Secondly, the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing that was used to assess the care needs of the patient will be discussed, and then the assessment process will be analysed critically. Identified areas of need will be discussed in relation to the care given and with reference to psychological, social, and biological factors as well as patho-physiology. Furthermore, the role of inter-professional skills in relation to care planning and delivery will be analysed, and finally the care given to the patient will be evaluated. Throughout this assignment, confidentiality will be maintained to a high standard by following the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Conduct (2008). No information regarding the hospital or ward will be mentioned, in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998. The pseudonym Kate will be used to maintain the confidentiality of the patient.The PatientKate, a lady aged 84, was admitted to a medical ward through the Accident and Emergency department. She was admitted with asthma and a chest infection. She presented with severe dyspnoea, wheezing, chest tightness and immobility. Kate is a patient known to suffer from chronic chest infections and asthma, with which she was diagnosed when she was young. She takes regular bronchodilators and corticosteroids in the form of inhalers and tablets. Kate lives on her own in a one bedroom flat. She has a daughter who lives one street away and visits her frequently. Her daughter stated that Kate has a very active social life; she enjoys going out for shopping using a shopping trolley.Assessment of the PatientAssessment TheoryIn this ward, the Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing, which reflects on the twelve activities of living, is used as a base for assessing patients (Alabaster 2011). These activities are Ã¢â¬Å"maintaining safe environment, communication, breathing, eating and drinking, elimination, personal cleansing and dressing, controlling body temperature, mobility, working and playing, sexuality, sleeping, and dyingÃ¢â¬ Holland (2008, p.9). Elkin, Perry and Potter (2007) outlined nursing process as a systematic way to plan and deliver care to the patient. It involves four stages: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Assessment is the first and most critical step of the nursing process, in which the nurse carries out a holistic assessment by collecting all the data about a patient (Alfaro-Lefevre 2010). The nurse uses physical assessment skills to obtain baseline data to manage patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems and to help nurses in the evaluation of care. Data can be collected through observation, physical assessment and by interviewing the patient (Rennie 2009). A complete assessment produces both subjective and objective findings (Wilkinson 2006). Holland (2008) defines subjective data as information given by the patient. It is obtained from the health history and relates to sensations or symptoms, for example pain. Subjective data also includes biographical data such as the name of the patient, address, next of kin, religion etc. Holland defines objective data as observable data, and relates it to signs of the disease. Objective data is obtained from physical examination, for example of blood pressure or urine. Before assessment takes place, the nurse should explain when and why it will be carried out; allow adequate time; attend to the needs of the patient; consider confidentiality; ensure the environment is conducive; and consider the coping patterns of the patient (Jenkins 2008). The nurse should also introduce herself to help reduce anxiety and gain the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence. During assessment, the nurse needs to use both verbal and non-verbal communication. Using non-verbal communication means that she should observe the patient, looking at the colour of the skin, the eyes, and taking note of odour and breathing. An accurate assessment enables nursing staff to prioritise a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and to deal with the problem immediately it has been identified (Gordon 2008). Documentation is also very important in this process; all information collected has to be recorded either in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s file or electronically (NMC, 2009b).Carrying out the AssessmentKate was allocate d a bed within a four-bed female bay. Her daughter was with her at the bedside. Gordon (2008) stated that understanding that any admission to hospital can be frightening for patients and allowing them some time to get used to the environment is important for nursing staff. KateÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter was asked if she could be present while the assessment was carried out, so that she could help with some information, and she agreed. Alfaro-Lefevre (2008) recommended that nursing assessments take place in a separate room, which respects confidentiality, and that the patient be free to participate in the assessment. Although there was a room available, KateÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter said it was fine for the assessment to take place at the bedside because her mother was so restless and just wanted to be next to her. The curtains were pulled around the bed, though William and Wilkins argued that it ensures visual privacy only and not a barrier to sound. NMC (2009a) acknowledges this, along with the n eed to speak at an appropriate volume when asking for personal details to maintain confidentiality. The assessment form that was used during KateÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment addressed personal details and the twelve activities of living. A moving and handling assessment form was also completed because of her immobility. First, personal details such as name, age, address, nickname, religion, and housing status were recorded. Information was also recorded about any agency involved, along with next of kin and contact details, and details of the general practitioner. Holland (2008) stated that these details should be accurate and legible so that, in case of any concerns about the patient, the next of kin can be contacted easily. The name and age are also vital in order to correctly identify the patient to avoid mistakes. Knowing what type of a job the patient does or the type of the house she lives in helps to indicate how the patient is going to cope after discharge. Holland also insisted that religion should be known in case the patient would like to have some privacy during prayers, and thi s should be included in the care plan. The second assessment to be done focused on physical assessment and the activities of living. Barrett, Wilson and Woollands (2009) suggested that when enquiring about the activities of living, two elements should be addressed: usual and current routines. Additionally, identifying a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s habits will help in care planning and setting goals. During physical assessment, when objective data was collected, Kate demonstrated laboured and audible breath sounds (wheezing) and breathlessness. Use of accessory muscles and nose flaring was also noted. She was agitated and anxious. Her vital signs were: blood pressure 110/70; pulse 102 beats /min; respirations 26/min; temperature 37.4 degrees Celsius; oxygen saturation 88%; peak flow 100 litres; weight 60kg; and body mass index 21. Taking and recording observations is very important and is the first procedure that student nurses learn to do. These observations are made in order to detect any signs of deterioration or progress in the p atientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition (Field and Smith 2008). Carpenito-Moyet (2006) stated that it is important to take the first observations before any medical intervention, in order to assist in the diagnosis and to help assess the effects of treatment. KateÃ¢â¬â¢s initial assessment was carried out in a professional way, taking account of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s particular circumstances, anxieties and wishes. After the baseline observations were taken, the twelve activities of living were analysed and KateÃ¢â¬â¢s needs were identified. Among the needs identified, breathing and personal hygiene (cleansing) will be explored.Identified Care NeedsBreathingWilkinson (2006) states that a nursing diagnosis is an account about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s current health situation. The normal breathing rate in a fit adult is 16-20 respirations/minute, but can go up to 30 due to pain, anxiety, pyrexia, sepsis, sleep and old age (Jenkins 2008). In old people, muscles become less efficient, resulting in increasing efforts to breathe, causing a high respiratory rate. On assessment, KateÃ¢â¬â¢s problem was breathing that resulted in insufficient intake of air, due to asthma. She was wheezing, cyanosed, anxious and had shortness of breath. Wilkinson (2006) explained that a goal statement is a quantifiable and noticeable criterion that can be used for evaluation. The goal statement in this case would be for Kate to maintain normal breathing and to increase air intake. The prescription of care for Kate depended on the assessment, which was achieved by monitoring her breathing rate, rhythm, pattern, and saturation levels. These were documented hourly, comparing the readings with initial readings to determine changes and to report any concerns. The other part of the plan was to give psychological care to Kate by involving her in her care and informing her about the progress, in order to reduce anxiety. Barrett, Wilson and Woollands (2012) stated that it is very important to give psychological care to patients who are dyspnoeic because they panic and become anxious. Checking and recording of breathing rate and pattern is very important because it is the only good way to assess whether this patient is improving or deteriorating, and it can be a very helpful method for nurses to evaluate whether or not the patient is responding to treatment (Jamieson 2007). Mallon (2010) stated that, if the breathing rate is more than 20, it indicates the need for oxygen. Blows (2001), however, argued that this can happen even after doing exercise, not only in people with respiratory problems. Griffin and Potter (2006) stated that, respirations are normally quiet, and therefore if they are audible it indicates respiratory disease. Nurses needs to be aware of these sounds and what they mean, for example a wheezing sound indicates bronchiole constriction. KateÃ¢â¬â¢s breathing was audible and the rate was also above normal and that is why breathing was prioritised as the first need. Oxygen saturation level was also monitored with the use of a pulse oximeter. The normal saturation level is 95-99% (British National Formulary ((BNF)) 2011a). Nevertheless the doctor said that 90-95% was fine for Kate, considering her condition and her age. Kate was started on two litres of oxygen and she maintained her oxygen saturation between 90 and 94%. The peak expiratory flow was monitored and recorded to identify the obstructive pattern of breathing that takes place in asthma (Hilton, 2005). This is another method that is used to assess the effectiveness of the medication (inhalers) the asthmatic patient is taking, and this test should be carried out 20 minutes after medication is administered. It is the TrustÃ¢â¬â¢s policy to do hourly observations on patients who have had one, two or three abnormal readings, until readings return to normal. Kate was observed for any blueness in the lips and tongue and for oral mucosa as this could be a sign of cyanosis. All the prescribed nebulisers, inhalers, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antibiotics and oxygen therapy were administered according to the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions. Bronchodilators are given to dilate the bronchioles constricted due to asthma, and corticosteroids reduce inflammation in the airway (BNF 2011b). Kate was also started on antibiotics to combat the infection because, on auscultation, the doctor found that the chest was not clear. Kate was nursed in an upright position using pillows and a profiling bed in order to increase chest capacity and facilitate easy respiratory function by use of gravity (Brooker and Nicol, 2011). In this position, Kate was comfortable and calm while other vital signs were being checked. Pulse rate and blood pressure were also being checked and recorded because raised pulse can indicate an infection in the blood.CleansingDue to breathlessness and loss of mobility it was difficulty for Kate to maintain her personal hygiene. Hygiene is the practice of cleanliness that is needed to maintain health, for example bathing, mouth washing and hair washing. The skin is the first line of defence, so it is vital to maintain personal cleansing to protect the inner organs against injuries and infection (Hemming 2010). Field and Smith (2008) stated that personal cleansing also stimulates the body, produces a sense of well-being, and enables nurses to assess the patient holistically. Personal hygiene is particularly important for the elderly because their skin becomes fragile and more prone to breaking down (Holloway and Jones 2005). Therefore this need was very important for Kate; she needed to maintain her hygiene as she used to, before she was ill. The goal for meeting this need was to maintain personal hygiene and comfort. The care plan prescribed involved first gaining consent from Kate, explaining what was going to be done. Hemming (2010) recommended that identifying the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s usual habit is very important because each individual has different ideas about hygiene due to age, culture or religion. Identifying usual habits helps individuals to maintain their social life if things are done according to their wishes. Though Hemming said all human beings need personal hygiene, Holland (2008) argued that it is important to ask patients how they feel about being cleaned, especially in private areas. Kate indicated that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind being assisted with washing and dressing. She preferred washing daily, shower and a hair wash once a week, and a mouth wash every morning and before going to bed. Kate was assisted with personal care 5-10 minutes after having her medication, especially the nebuliser. Individuals with asthma experience shortness of breath whenever they are physically active (Ritz, Rosenfield and Steptoe 2010). After having medication Kate was able to participate during personal hygiene. According to NMC guidelines on confidentiality (2009a), privacy and dignity should be maintained when giving care to patients. Therefore, whenever Kate was being assisted with personal care, it was ensured that the screens were closed and she was properly covered. Field and Smith (2008) suggested that assisting a patient with personal hygiene is the time that nurses can assess the patient holistically. Since Kate was immobile, it was very important to check her pressure areas for any redness. She was also checked for any pallor, jaundice, cyanosis or dry skin that needed attention. The care was always carried out according to her wishes.The Role of Inter-Professional SkillsConsi dering KateÃ¢â¬â¢s age and condition, she needed multi-professional teamwork. NMC (2008) encourages teamwork to maintain good quality care. Kate was referred to the respiratory nurse who is specialised in helping people with breathing problems. Since Kate was on oxygen since admission, the respiratory nurse taught her the importance of healthy breathing and taught her some breathing exercises to help wean her from oxygen. Kate was also referred to the physiotherapist who did breathing exercises with her. Kate was not able to walk without aid so she was also referred to the occupational therapy department to assess how she was going to manage at home, or if she required aids to help her manage the activities of living. Upon meeting together, all the multi-disciplinary team agreed that Kate needed a care package, as she could no longer live without care. She was referred to social services so that they could assess this aspect of KateÃ¢â¬â¢s future. After one week Kate was medically fit but could not go home because she was waiting for the care package to be ready. Her nurse shared information with the multi-disciplinary team in order to establish continuity of care for Kate. The team prepared for her discharge: the occupational therapy staff went to visit her home to check if there was enough space for her walking frame; social services arranged for a care package; and her nurses referred her to the district nurse to help her with her medication and make sure it did not run out.OutcomeKate responded well to the medication she was prescribed; normal breathing was maintained, her respirations became normal, ranging from 18 to 20 respirations per minute, and her oxygen saturation ranged from 95% to 99%. Kate was able to wash and dress herself with minimal assistance. She was discharged on a continuous care package comprising care three times a day, and the district nurse helped her with the medication to control her asthma.Evaluat ionThe model of the twelve activities of living was followed successfully on the whole. The nurse collected subjective and objective data, allowing a nursing diagnosis to be formulated, goals to be identified and a care plan to be constructed and implemented. Privacy is very important in carrying out assessments, and this was not achieved fully in KateÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment. However, this lower level of privacy has to be balanced against causing anxiety to the patient. KateÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter thought that the bedside assessment would be more comfortable for her mother, and therefore cause least anxiety. This was very important because of the effects of potential panic on breathing; therefore, this was the correct balance to strike. A multi-disciplinary team was involved in meeting KateÃ¢â¬â¢s care goals. This is a good example of the use of inter-professional skills, as a number of different departments were involved in creating and implementing the care plan. However, the system was not as efficient as it should have been: Kate spent unnecessary time in hospital after recovery because the care plan was not yet in place. Assessment can also take a long time, especially with the elderly who are usually slow to respond. Therefore, more time is needed to be sure that the necessary progress has been achieved before taking further steps. However, poor staffing also affects performance in this area, an observation supported by the Royal College of Nursing (2012). In conclusion, the assessment of this patient was completed successfully, and the deviation from best practice recommendations (the lower level of privacy) was justified by the clinical circumstances. Progress from assessment to care goals was good, and at this point an inter-disciplinary team was used successfully. However, the one flaw in this process was delays, caused partly by the difficulties of working across different departments, and partly, it seems, by staff shortages. 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